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feline:nutrition

Feline Nutrition

What do they Like Best?

Some cats like variety, others will not eat unless it's what they are used to. To determine what they like best, offer two dishes, letting them smell both before serving. See what gets eaten first, and keep notes. This may vary over time, just the way humans may feel like having Thai food one day, yet have a craving for a burger the next. So don't dismiss a food unless it has had a thorough testing.

If you have a cat that is addicted to lower quality cat food, you can change their habit by slowly mixing in better food.

Healthiest Cat Diet

Mainstream Low Cost Solutions

Anindita Roy on Quora may be right about the quality of lower cost canned cat food, as long as it has the right proportions of proteins, fats, and carbs:

Click here for what she wrote

Click here for what she wrote

“I have no idea who these weird people are saying wet food isn't good for cats or are like McD burgers, lol. Please ignore them. Sheba perfect portions are actually one of the best wet foods you can find in that price bracket. It has only named meat and some by-products (which means organs and glands which anyway cats eat first in any animal and does not mean hooves or dead animals like some idiots will tell you), has good protein-fat-carb ratio, good amount of calories for a less amount of food (you need to feed only 4 servings if you are only feeding them to your average sized cat) and has no grains or potato at all and has low carbs (7%). It's above average even compared to much more expensive cat foods like Wellness and Weruva. If it's what you can afford and your cat will eat readily, then just feed that. If you can afford more expensive food, then do that if your cat will eat it. Even fancy feast classic pate are good grain free food (not the other ones which have loads of wheat and carbs) if your cat will eat it. However, Sheba is a better brand imo as it has no artificial flavors. I feed my cats both Sheba and Fancy feast pate along with some high protein grain free dry food.”


Click here for the recommended proportions of proteins, fats, and carbs from different sources

Click here for the recommended proportions of proteins, fats, and carbs from different sources

The percentages of protein, fat, and carbs are listed on a calorie basis:

https://www.eastsidevets.com.au/pet-conditions/look-cat-food
“nutritional profile of a mouse is 55.8 percent protein and 23.6 percent fat”

  • protein at least 25-55%
  • fat 20-24%

http://www.granbyanimalclinic.com/index_files/Page870.htm

  • protein 40-60%
  • fat 30-50%
  • carbohydrates < 15%

https://www.nobhillcatclinic.com/sfcatblog/is-high-protein-cat-food-the-answer

  • 35-45% protein
  • 50-58% high protein diet

https://prettylitter.com/blogs/prettylitter-blog/thinking-about-a-homemade-cat-diet-what-you-should-know

  • 52% protein
  • 35% fat
  • 12.5% carbs

https://www.catcarecenter.com/services/cats/feline-nutrition-cat-food
When data was collected from the studies it revealed the natural diet of free ranging cats was:

  • 52% protein
  • 46% fat
  • 2% carbohydrates

https://www.nap.edu/resource/10668/cat_nutrition_final.pdf
http://dels.nas.edu/resources/static-assets/materials-based-on-reports/booklets/cat_nutrition_final.pdf
RDA for cats:

  • protein 12.5 grams, or approx 10% protein by weight for canned cat food
  • fat 5.5 grams, or approx 4.4% fat by weight for canned food

“Carbohydrates provide 4 calories per gram, protein provides 4 calories per gram, and fat provides 9 calories per gram.” source
Therefore, on a calorie basis, and setting the proportions close to that of a mouse (note: the slight differences from a mouse, may be that the calories per gram values for protein and fat are rounded off):

  • 49% protein
  • 48.5% fat
  • 2.5% carbs


However, canned food isn't the best food for humans, is it? Then why would it be for cats?
https://www.healthline.com/health-news/consumer-group-says-canned-foods-still-contain-dangerous-chemical
https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/canned-food-good-or-bad

Canned cat food also tends to contain too much phosphorous:
https://www.petfoodindustry.com/articles/7069-high-phosphorus-cat-food-may-hurt-kidneys

The best food for a cat, is whole mice or birds. So how to mimic this with food from the grocery store? I intend to learn and update this article.

My solution in the past, when I had an indoor/outdoor cat, was to teach him to eat his kill (he didn't know how). He brought home a bird, and I plucked the feathers while he watched with great interest. Then I cut into the bird with a knife to expose blood, and put the bird on his plate. I had a guest room which became his office (the killing room). I had to vacuum the feathers and pick up an occasional beak. I also offered wet cat food and also let him eat whatever I was eating if he wanted some. If there are ingredients that are toxic to cats, throw them out of the house.

For those without the option of having a relatively safe outdoors for a cat, and limited time to indulge in preparing your own cat food, an adequate compromise may be to vary the diet with all of wet, dry, and human food. Prepare the human food with healthy ingredients for both of you, and set a dinner table for two, or three, or however many cats you have.

Cat Food Review Sites

https://www.pawdiet.com/pet-food-reviews
They actually list what ingredients are good and bad in each individual cat food product.
http://catfooddb.com
Some good info, but I'm not so sure about their rating system.
https://www.wwwallaboutcats.com/cat-food-reviews
Good for reading about the companies behind the brands.

These review sites can't measure the quality of the meat provided, because they go by ingredient lists. Was that beef grass fed? Probably not. Was the beef lightly cooked in the can (or worse, was it cooked in plastic), or was the beef cooked to the point of destroying beneficial amino acids? There's no way to tell from the ingredients listed. So aside from whole food ingredients, I look at the consistency and smell. I prefer to have it look and smell like fresh meats. Cat food really isn't that different from human food. I read that in a random taste test, people could not tell the which pate was pate, and which was cat food pate. While many cats like pate, I also like milkshakes. So I prefer meat to look like meat, rather than pate. The less processed, the better.

I prefer pre-packaged small servings, as the food is always fresher right after opening, so I look for brands that have 3oz or less. My current buys are:

primal - frozen raw. Upon opening I divide into smaller zip locks.
stella and chewys - dehydrated raw. Upon opening I divide into smaller zip locks.
tikki cat - 3oz cans, including After Dark. Curious about their raw product.
weruva - the bff soups are great.
sheba - most affordable. I like the perfect portions, and the tender stick treats.

Not meant to be comprehensive of which cat foods are the best, just what Luna is currently scarfing down and asking for more. She also eats whatever I'm having, and beef or chicken baby food. The future may hold some raw human grade meat, including bones to clean her teeth.

What Additives Would Make Regular Meat into Cat Food?

The list at this site is overkill, but it's a start: https://www.carnivora.ca/html/carnivora-cats/Cat-Nutrition/index.cfm The reason it is overkill, is that some of the nutrients will already be in grocery store meat. This section is under construction.

calcium phosphorus 2:1
taurine, arginine
methionine and cysteine (usually low in most cat foods)
fat provides vitamins A, D, E and K
fiber

Prescription Diets

Prescription diets are mostly poor quality cat food, for the purpose of profiteering by the food industry. A common story of corporations preying on conformists. For a thorough analysis, read this article:

https://www.dogsnaturallymagazine.com/calling-bullhit-prescription-diet-dog-food

If your cat has a health issue, the first line of correction is to feed him quality, healthy cat food.

Kidney issues are caused by feeding dry cat food and giving unnecessary booster vaccines. However, if your cat's kidneys are severe, you will have to reduce the protein content. The key is to reduce phosphorous, which meat, poultry, and fish are high in. More details on prevention and treatment:

https://www.petfinder.com/cats/cat-health/tips-preventing-kidney-failure-in-cats
https://www.onlynaturalpet.com/blogs/holistic-healthcare-library/best-diet-for-pets-with-kidney-disease

Toxic Ingredients

Menadione Sodium Bisulfate (Synthetic Vitamin K). “…whereas the natural forms of vitamin K are safe, even in high doses, K3 can interfere with glutathione, your body’s main antioxidant. K3 was once used to treat vitamin K deficiency in infants, but it caused liver toxicity, jaundice, and hemolytic anemia. Nowadays, it is used only in animal feed, in small doses” examine.com. Also see truthaboutpetfood.com and bigcatrescue.org.

Food Categories

Raw Meat

I eat burgers medium rare, and the middle sure looks really pink to me. I figure cats can handle rare if it's fresh and good quality.

I also put raw eggs in my smoothies. Maybe some egg will mix well into the raw beef, for added variety.

Raw bones are important for feline dental health. Chunks and Bones For Your Cat's Teeth: “Raw bones appropriate for cats include fresh chicken necks and wings, which the cat can completely consume.” Approximately 70% of domestic cats have some dental issue by the age of 3.

How to grind raw bones: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cueO3EkYgps

Cooked Meat

(under construction)

Bone Broth

Cook up some meat with bones in a slow cooker, for both you and your cat, using only cat safe ingredients. If you want to add non-safe ingredients, you can first take some of the broth out a few hours before completion. Bone broth is especially good for nursing mother cats, that need a lot of liquids.

Raw Frozen Cat Food

Anything in the freezer will accumulate frost on the outside, as moisture builds up every time you open the container. It's good to rinse off the frost before serving. Thereafter I warm up the food in the microwave for 5 seconds. Luna prefers food that can be licked, so I mash the chunks. Then warm for another 5 seconds.

Sometimes I'll serve with baby food on the side, and Luna eats that first, although not exclusively as her tongue wanders to the raw as well. Other times I mix the two together in a swirl pattern.

Raw Freeze Dried / Dehydrated Cat Food

(under construction)

Canned Cat Food

(under construction)

Broth / Soups Cat Food

(under construction)

Dry Cat Food (Kibble)

https://www.wwwallaboutcats.com/best-dry-cat-food
http://catfooddb.com/product/dr%20elsey's/Cleanprotein+With+Salmon

“Unlike most grain-free foods, Dr. Elsey’s kibble doesn’t contain any legumes, potatoes, or other plant-sourced ingredients. Instead, it relies on gelatin as its sole binding agent. This allows Dr. Elsey’s cleanprotein™ cat food to keep its carbohydrate content under 10%. That’s practically unheard of among dry foods.” The 6.6 lb salmon/chicken blend is $28 at amazon. For some reason, the plain chicken flavor is $38.

Dry cat food should not be a mainstay, because cats get the majority of their moisture from food. Cats have less thirst than they need to have, unless they are fed a diet high in moisture. Feeding dry cat food exclusively leads to kidney disease. One option is to make dry food soup.

Cat Chews

Cat chews are good for your cat's teeth and give them something interesting to do. Quotes from: https://www.chronofhorse.com/forum/forum/off-topic/the-menagerie/139216-cats-and-rawhide-chews

I buy the dried chicken strips for my cats - The big ones they sell for dogs. I also give them raw bones, and I recently tried the kitty kong with frozen stuffing. That wasn't tough enough, but I'm going to get one of the small dog ones and try again, because it did keep them busy, right up until one figured out he could just chew the darn thing in half.

My cat steals the bully sticks from the dogs and chews on those. She loves the dried chicken strips too and will sit on command with the dog pack to get one.

I give her those little pig ear strips. She usually doesn't finish them, but she certainly give it the old college try.

Aside from bully sticks and chicken strips and pig ears, other options include beef ears and beef hearts. Beef hearts naturally have extra taurine. Look for brands that are 100% meat. Cats usually just swallow smaller stuff whole, so my hope is that they will enjoy the process by chewing on something bigger.

I took some 6“ bully sticks to the Brooklyn Cat Cafe, and the cats there tried chewing on the end but gave up. It may be because they have both wet and dry food out all day. If you have a really large cat with powerful jaws, or if your cat is on a diet and desperate, then maybe, but I doubt it.

Human Baby Food

Choosing a baby food, it may be a better guarantee you will get quality meat from these products, than canned cat food. For example, Gerber Brand Chicken and Gravy or Beech Nut Beef and Beef Broth. The Gerber brand has a litte corn starch as a thickener.

Fruits and Vegetables

Small amounts to complement their carnivore diet:

Yes: baked carrots, peas, frozen corn, steamed asparagus or broccoli florets, green beans, zucchini, spinach, catnip, green beans, winter squash, lettuce or chopped greens.

No: garlic, onions, tomatoes, avocados or mushrooms.

Dairy

Cats are lactose intolerant. All the sugar in dairy is lactose. Fermented dairy has less lactose, because the culture feeds on the sugar. If your cat likes these, the amount given should be small. Whenever I'm having fermented dairy, I offer a bit to my cat. Do not give cats cheap cheeses such as velveeta (or to yourself, for that matter), because these do not have live cultures.

For example, milk has 12 grams of lactose per cup, half and half has 10 grams per cup, and cottage cheese has 6 grams per cup. Heavy cream and cream cheese have trace amounts of lactose. The sugar content of cheese depends on the amount of time the culture has had time to ferment it. “Cheeses such as mozzarella, provolone, cheddar, Swiss and blue cheese generally contain less than 1 gram of lactose per ounce.” 1

“If you want to know if a cheese is lactose free then you need to check the nutritional label and see how much sugar is listed. Lactose is a sugar so if it has none – then it has no lactose either. Legally it can have up to half a gram of sugar and still be “Sugar Free”” Source: https://www.ihateyoumilk.com/advice/how-to-tell-if-cheese-contains-lactose

One ricotta cheese I saw had 8 grams of fat, 7 grams of protein, and 2 grams of carbs. That would make it 12% carbs, 47% fat, and 41% protein.

Kitten Milk Formula

” Cow’s milk is an inadequate substitute for the milk received by a kitten from its mother. The calcium-to-phosphorous ratio and lactose levels are too high in cow’s milk. The energy, fat levels and protein are too low to provide adequate growth in a kitten. Human baby formula is also not a good substitute as it provides less than 50% of the protein and fat required for a kitten’s growth. “ Alley Cat Allies

” Do not substitute cow's milk or goat's milk for a high quality kitten milk replacer. They are not equivalent. Do not feed raw egg whites, as a biotin deficiency may occur due to an enzyme in the white part of the egg. The enzyme is destroyed with cooking. Honey may contain bacteria, which may be fatal to the kittens. “ Philippine Animal Rescue Team

Home made recipe:

  3 egg yolk (no whites)
  3 oz. goat milk
  3 oz. plain full fat yogurt
  3 oz. bone broth

Heat the bone broth, then add the goat milk to lower the temperature, then add the egg yolk and yoghurt. Blend and bottle.

There are many other formula recipes available on the net, but they all mention they are not nutritionally complete, that you should buy formula from the store. I sought to find the most nutritionally balanced recipe as an alternative, so the kittens could have a tasty treat. Maybe food is more yummy when it's varied a bit. Maybe they won't grow up finicky?

Hydration

Cat's don't need to drink as much water as humans do, but it's still good to keep your cat hydrated. You can entice your cat to drink more water in several ways, including commercial broths and soups for cats (see category above).

If you are using a water filter that purifies water, including removal of all ions (such as the Zero-Water filter), then you can “dirty” the water as a way to keep the water fresh, by adding ions of your choice. Otherwise, deionized water will leach whatever ions are in the air. For example, a tea bag, dunked a few times, will add ions into the water and it will no longer be deionized. Use glass (or ceramic? or stainless steel?) containers as deionized water can leach from surfaces such as plastic. Even regular tap water does, to a lesser extent.

The Zero-Water filter comes with a plastic pitcher. I put the pitcher in the fridge, as cold water can leach less plastic. Later I transfer the water to a sealed glass container, until the water is needed.

“Provide your cat with fresh water every day. Cats prefer to drink away from their food. This is a natural behavior in the wild to avoid drinking water potentially contaminated with the dead prey. Place several water sources in different locations within the home. Consider glass bowls as they do not retain a smell like plastic and cats do like to see the water level in their bowls. Shallow, wide bowls are preferred to respect their sensitive whiskers. Some cats like to drink from a moving source so a water fountain may be beneficial.” source

Dry Food Soup

For a serving of dry or dehydrated cat food they will eat right away, you can soak these in a couple of tablespoons of water to make a soup. Dry food that's been wet will go bad very quickly, so a small amount is best if your cat likes to graze.

Tea and Home-Made Broth

Cats may like to drink catnip tea. Don't leave the catnip in the water, because cats may avoid water that looks dirty. You may find them trying to paw the catnip out of the way for drinking. So it's best to steep the catnip and then strain. You can also use peppermint tea bags. Just 30 seconds of steeping in cold water will make a difference in the taste of the water for a cat.

Water Fountains

(under construction)

Eating Schedule

https://www.catster.com/cat-food/is-free-feeding-cats-the-best-way-to-feed-your-cat

An example with one grazer cat. I want to discourage grazing, so I put out the food, and when she's finished I cover the bowl and put it in the fridge. I microwave for 4-6 seconds when I reserve so it's not cold. Sometimes I will use the toaster oven at 130F (54C), and the smell drives her crazy. This works if you are around, so you can give her food when she asks for more. This is also a good way to teach her tricks, since you control the reward. It also negates the need for any of the following motion detection, microchip detection, or timer food bowls in the following sections.

My cat has issues with chewing. She is 3 years old, and I haven't checked her dental health. However, she's made progress with a rather tough piece of 100% beef jerky, marketed for dogs. I measure her level of hunger by how willing she is to chew, and how much she starts running up and down the hall trying to get my attention with the wild look in her eyes. She gets frustrated with how stupid I am, but she is also learning how to communicate with the human. She stares at me trying to figure me out, or maybe she has the same face as a vulture waiting for the prey to die.

Some people recommend keeping a regular schedule because they think cats need routine so they are not ”out of control. It was as if he turned into a possessed and angry demon.“ (link refers to human child). I hope to train my cat to have zen like a Buddhist monk, that also enjoys attacking me without claws (thanks to God), and has a general sense of humor.

A long time ago, when Korina was still around, I trained her to keep my bald head well bathed. She did it once, and I jumped for joy and ran to get her a treat. Soon thereafter it was her mission to keep me well bathed. I always allowed her to pull my head down to the desk with her paw, so she could take care of me. Even at the dinner table with my family. I think she felt satisfaction of having so much power over her human. Everything besides her was lower priority.

Refusal to Chew

For canned cat food, for example chunks in gravy, some cats will lick up the juices and leave the chunks. They will leave behind anything that requires chewing. You can get around this with pate, or by smashing the chunks and stirring. Some even get a food processor for this purpose.
https://www.quora.com/What-should-I-do-to-get-my-cat-to-eat-all-his-wet-food-instead-of-just-licking-juice-off-of-it-and-not-eat-the-rest-of-it
https://www.quora.com/Why-wont-my-cat-eat-the-chunks-in-the-cat-food-She-will-only-eat-the-chunks-if-I-shred-them-to-be-almost-pate-She-can-bite-a-chunk-off-a-cat-treat-I-hold-in-my-hand-and-she-can-also-tear-a-piece-of-meat-off-a-bone

If you make your own cat food, you can use a blender for making large batches that are chunk free. You can also use a food mill, coffee grinder, handheld blender, or personal blender for a small batch. I'm going to try the Cuisipro Herb Mill because it looks easy to clean, and doesn't make noise. Update: The Cuisipro Herb Mill does not work. The blades don't catch the food and pull it through the mesh. It's a nice contraption, except for the blades which are poor quality and bad design.

Food Bowls

Ceramic

Ceramics are my favorite, compared to plastic or stainless bowls. They should be shallow because cats dislike having their whiskers touch the sides.

Motion Detecting Lids

A lot of cats are grazers, eating a little throughout the day. How do you serve wet food in a way that it won't dry out, or attract flies?
https://www.surepetcare.com/en-us/pet-feeder/sealed-pet-bowl, which has a motion detecting lid.

Chip Detecting Lids

If you have more than one cat, and they require different diets. Or, if one cat scarfs food when served, and the other is a grazer.
https://www.surepetcare.com/en-us/pet-feeder/microchip-pet-feeder
http://gatefeeder.com

However, one of my parent's cats is BJ, a grazer, who will open his dish for his best friend Chris, the scarfer. My parents were curious if BJ was going to the dish because he might be hungry, however, he had no interest when given another bowl. Chris is supposed to be on a diet. Chris and BJ are pals; a coalition.

You can also use a microchip cat door placed into a large tupperware container. The following is a commercial version:
https://meowspace.biz/about-meowspace

Timer Lids

https://www.wopet.com/products/2-meals-feeder-with-ice-pack
Cat Mat C10 Feeder (YouTube)

There are also many others that hold multiple servings, using either a turning carousel or a large compartment that dispenses to the same bowl. Carousel feeders ensure they always get a clean bowl for every serving.

Discussion

test122.111.138.161, 2020/05/25 02:39
Hello :) Just thought I'd drop in and add my bit.

I have had this cat for seven years. Have had cats all my life, along with dogs, so they are my 'nearest relatives'. The interesting thing about Silkie is she doesn't like any of the sort of things cats are supposed to like and has never even bothered beyond the first sniff.

She knows a lot about food because there are only the two of us so she is allowed on benches and to sniff my food. I'm always interested to see if anything appeals.

Once she liked ice-cream with caramel, honey and macadamia nuts, but ignored the nuts. Over a couple of weeks she must have had it about four times and then lost interest. Not touched it since

She eats 'Fussy Cat' meat. It is grain free, which I believe is the best we can give them. She also has 'Fussy Cat' dry, which is also grain free, and she enjoys the Whiskas pouches with the beef gravy. That's it.

Her coat is so soft and shiny and I brush her every night so there are no fur balls. After that she's 'self care'

I feel it is really important to get cats and dogs off grain products. They are not natural to them and can cause all sorts of trouble with allergies and itching. It bloats them and also they put on weight because of it.

Take a dog off food that contains grain and you will see a remarkable change within weeks.

Well, there you go :) Just thought you might be interested.

With very best wishes,
Carolyn
marcos, 2020/05/25 05:14
I agree Carolyn, there is not much carbs in a mouse or bird! I too let cats smell everything I have, and share, because they're the best.
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feline/nutrition.txt · Last modified: 2020/06/03 21:08 by marcos