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The order of the sections is mostly in the order of discovery while I researched

My Shopping for a Vehicle in Peru

Save to buy a crossover, hatchback or van. A van would be vehicle of choice if I'm going to build a house, good for car camping, etc. Or sports car and cargo trailer?

Porsche cayenne with manual transmission is really heavy at 4900 lb. BMW i3?

Below links to find the lightest vehicles:

https://www.auto-tests.com/en/lightest-weight/Crossover/all/

https://insideevs.com/news/527966/electric-cars-from-heaviest-lightest/

https://www.carsized.com/

Related sites:

Foreigners guide to buying a car in Peru, czickontheroad.com 2020

Buying a Vehicle in Peru, tripadvisor.com 2014




Fuel Efficiency

Improving Automobile Fuel Economy: New Standards, New Approaches, 1991 (PDF)

Aerodynamics, weight, and engine efficiency are elements of gas mileage. The McLaren F1 with a 6 liter V12 engine, painstakingly made to be as light as possible, weighs 2500lbs. Aptera weighs 1800lbs. Lotus Elise weighs 1600lbs.

160 miles, at 20mpg is $50 worst case scenario (distance to Trujillo). I don't live in Venezuela with 6 cents a gallon. For the same reason I should upgrade the solar water heater, to spend $50 less per month on electricity.

Smaller vehicles with tiny engines have better gas mileage, but I don't want something super tiny, because:

  • i want a cool looking vehicle
  • harsher suspension
  • no tow capacity

I'd prefer to have an electric vehicle, and set up a solar array to charge the car. That's great for getting around locally with no fuel cost. However, for long trips there are no electric charging stations in Peru.





Ability to Transport People and Materials

While keeping aerodynamics for fuel efficiency.

I don't necessarily want to get in the business of transporting all the locals. Very few people if at all.

Perhaps a cargo trailer is key for the occasional need for a lot of cargo. I don't always need huge extra space.





Ground Clearance

Vehicles with a lot of body overhang in front or behind the tires look disgusting and have a tough time going over any obstacle.

If I avoid body overhang, I don't need much ground clearance. I can add a little ground clearance with larger tires or a small lift kit. I won't be in off-road sporting competitions. The need for clearance on even poor gravel roads isn't that much.

“Most sedan vehicles generally have an average ground clearance between 4-6 inches whereas SUVs average between 6-8 inches.” 4wheeldriveguide.com Clearance for off-road sport vehicles is 8-10 inches.

Update: After having to do some river crossings during rainy season, maybe some extra ground clearance would be nice. Though it's still hard to choose between the benefit of extra lift and the benefit of having a low center of gravity and better aerodynamics. How often is having, say, 3 inches of additional ground clearance going to be useful? If the water is too high, even 3 inches isn't enough.

El Niño rainy season came and there were many water crossings required, and gravel roads became a nightmare. Although extreme El Niños occur once every 10 years, and non-extreme every 2 to 7 years, I think extreme weather will be the norm as the climate worsens.

A paved road is supposed to be built between Niepos and Oyotun, but no plans for a gravel road to Udima yet. Also with government corruption and instability, construction of the paved road has a lot of uncertainty.





Specifications V1

Mandatory:

  • Something I love
  • At least 3 seats
  • Minimum 2 suitcase cargo space

Good Qualities:

  • Fuel efficiency
  • Weight less than 3300 lb
  • Aerodynamic drag coefficient < 0.34 (toyota previa)myevreview wikipedia
  • RWD or AWD so I can go uphill with a trailer on gravel roads
  • Enough horsepower to tow a trailer
  • Engine and transmission simplicity
  • Manual transmission
  • Hatchback
  • Independent rear suspension
  • Near 50/50 weight distribution
  • Limited slip differential or torque vectoring
  • Ground Clearance
  • Driver Visibility





Aptera

With Aptera's built-in solar panels, the fuel efficiency would be the best. I would likely never have to charge it, as even on long trips I prefer to stay a while at every stop. Aptera claims tow capacity. Aptera claims international delivery in 2023/2024, but 2026 or maybe never is more likely.

I really want at least 3 seats and the first generation vehicle will be a two seater. I think a sideways rear seat or middle seat can be fashioned for the Aptera.


Towing Capacity

For shopping travel to nearby cities, I can use a trailer for large items. Aptera FAQ says: “We hope to make a tow package available at some point in the future. We envision Aptera could tow a small lightweight trailer for camping, maybe even adding some extra solar capability.”

A trailer and cargo should not weigh more than the Aptera: “The tow vehicle should weigh close to as much as the trailer and horses combined.” doubletrailers.com

The Aptera weighs 1800 lbs. A flatbed utility trailer weighs 700 lbs, and a small enclosed trailer weighs 1000 lbs. They can carry 1000 lbs. The following video goes on and on to come to the same towing capacity conclusion of about 2000 lb:

Weight in front of the trailer axle adds to traction on the rear wheel of the Aptera.

A flatbed trailer offers less security than an enclosed trailer but is less prone to sidewinds and more versatile and cheaper. Cargo nets and tarps for rain.

Even if an enclosed trailer would weigh more and be less efficient, my application may be to leave contents in the trailer at a “cochera” while I stay in the hotel. Alternatively, with a flatbed trailer I can save big item purchases for the last day, and drive directly from the store to my house like a normal person.

If affordable, the coolness factor of an aerodynamically shaped trailer would be better overall.


Adding a Seat?

A downside to the Aptera is that they made a hump along the floorboard dividing the seats. Supposedly for structural reasons, but I suspect they could have worked around that, and the real reason is to keep the Aptera from having 3 comfortable seats in the front.

They could have made the steering wheel be in the middle, which would have also simplified manufacturing left and right hand drive cars (like for England). The McLaren F1 has this. Alternatively, they could have done as with the Matra Murena and added a middle seat that can fold down to be an armrest:

Matra Murena Seating

Looking at the following video, the seats aren't that wide and the space between the seats isn't either. Removing the center console and adding a cushion seat and a pillow backrest would allow three non-fat adults to sit, but in a cramped manner like the back seat of a compact car. Doable but not for more than an hour without a break.

Video: Aptera seat movement, cargo space, airbags

Seat to Ridge Height

I think it wouldn't be impossible for someone to fit in the middle:

Aptera passengers

The width of the fuselage is 70“, the same width as a Subaru Impreza. The backseats of the Impreza can fit 3 persons.


Lack of Internal Space

There really is no space behind the seat unless you slide the seat forward:

Aptera seats

Instead of having a perfectly flat cargo floor, could they have a ridge along the center for the wheel/suspension. Too much wasted space?

Aptera rear suspension

Aptera chassis

Aptera chassis

Aptera

I think there is room for some cramped rear seats. No need to put an artificial boundary as shown by the battery panel placed at 60 degrees behind the front seats.

Aptera top view

Making the body wider affects the turning radius, unless they decrease the length of the front wheel airfoils.


Internal vs External Wheels

Because of the external wheels, Aptera's 88” width is 8“ wider than the widest of pick up trucks such as the F150. Instead of external front wheels, they could design integral wheel wells with flexible outer body panels for turning. The front wheels are internal, but with a continuous aerodynamic shell with the body. Like this but not so dull looking:

Enclosed Front Fenders

Aptera has In-Wheel-Motors. There are pros and cons to this. A con of unsprung weight at the wheels is a harsher ride going over rough terrain. This can be diminished by cantilevering the wheels far from the body, so that wheel motion translates to a lesser magnitude of motion at the body. Which may be a reason Aptera chose outboard wheels.






Exploring More Options

So I doubt I'll get the Aptera. I'll shop around for whatever is used. Eventually I will want an electric vehicle, but there isn't anything used in Peru. As of 2021 there's like 3000 electric vehicles in all of Peru. There are absolutely no charging stations. I'll get an old gasoline car and save on depreciation, even though used cars are much more expensive here than in USA.

I really dislike FWD, so I think I will veer away from it regardless. My ideal seems to be RWD, as it is less complex than AWD. Though I wouldn't be disappointed with AWD because of the coolness factor of added grip on gravel roads.

The ideal car could be like the Hyundai Veloster:

Hyundai Veloster

  • Little body overhang over the wheels
  • Small suicide rear door(s)?
  • Moon roof
  • Enough height to have some internal volume, but not too much as it will suffer in aerodynamics
  • Hatchback (hot hatch)

What's lacking with the Veloster is RWD/AWD. Drat! The Veloster is FWD only.

Also, the Veloster doesn't have suicide doors

The Veloster is like an extended version of the 1988-1991 Honda CRX, which is also FWD.

CRX Side View
CRX Front View
CRX Rear View

The Toyota Yaris has an AWD option, but it's too small of a vehicle.

Dimensional comparison between Veloster and Yaris


The Nissan Juke concept car excellent. The production car looks terrible:

Nissan Juke

Only the concept car that led to the Juke had suicide doors:

Nissan Juke Suicide Rear Doors

Nissan Juke Concept Car

The Juke got bigger with newer model years. I think there's a 2011-2014, a 2015-2018, and a 2019 (see carbuyer.co.uk review). The 2019 was significantly bigger though 50 lbs lighter (see Wikipedia).

Unfortunately, the Juke with AWD is only available with a CVT automatic transmission. Further confirmation here. I think this is also true for the Fiat 500x.

The Mazda MX-30 has suicide doors, but it's an electric vehicle with poor range, and started selling in 2020.

The Mazda 3 with a 2.0 liter engine gets 30/40 mpg. 40mpg highway is among the best according to caranddriver.com. Mazda 3 is available in AWD as an option, but the option is so rare that I can't find a used AWD Mazda 3. Ford Focus diesel gets an amazing 56mpg according to a friend of mine in England.





Porsche Cayenne

The Porsche Macan is out because no manual transmission is offered.

Curb weight be damned, a 2006 Porsche Cayenne V6 may be the best deal? Only the rich in Peru can afford them and their bad gas mileage, and the rich want to sell an older car and get a new one. The main obstacle is that Porsches with manual transmissions are very rare.

Doug Demuro review of 2009 Porsche Cayenne GTS V8 naturally aspirated manual

carfax.com (link requires USA VPN) has ads starting at $7K for Porsche Cayenne with ~200km odometer readings. Will the prices be comparable in Peru?

It's not like I would drive it daily, so I could afford to pay more for gasoline on occasion? I can also modify the engine to run on compressed natural gas to reduce fuel cost. See section below on CNG.

Porsche has parts available in Lima:
https://www.porsche.com/latin-america-en/_peru_/aboutporsche/importers/
https://dealer.porsche.com/pe/lima

Also a lot of Porsche parts are rebadged VW parts, which can be had for a lesser price.

I have this idea that Porsche would make its cars from superior materials. For example, the suspension would have less inertial mass to provide superior ground traction. Better performance engineering. Toyota, by contrast, may be more focused on longevity. However, this idea is not a solid conclusion. Would I be getting aluminum or titanium suspension arms instead of heavier cast iron?

Porsche related articles

The articles are not really conclusive, so I ask this question on Quora: Are Porsche suspensions made from lighter materials like titanium, carbon fiber, magnesium, etc., than other less expensive cars?

fcpeuro and edmunds.com have images of Porsche Cayenne suspensions, but don't mention materials. fcpeuro.com does say the body and suspension are overbuilt.

“On the rear axle of the Cayenne and Cayenne S, Porsche is continuing to fit a multi-link suspension with lightweight steel links and steel springs as standard.” porsche.de





Engines

Engine Layout

For a reciprocating internal combustion engine, my ideal for engine simplicity would have:

  • smallish 6 cylinders (L6, V6, or flat 6)
  • air cooled
  • 2 valves per cylinder
  • OHV for flat/boxer/V6, or SOHC for L6

I like a 6 cylinder because it runs more smoothly than a 4 banger. A boxer engine is by nature smooth but is more complicated, with somewhat unresolved technical issues (gravity does not help oil lubrication).

Turbo or Supercharger

Even though adding a turbo allows you to get better fuel efficiency by reducing the size of the engine (keeping the same output power), the tradeoff is added engine complexity and shortened engine lifespan. See Turbocharging to Save Gas, Instead of to Go Fast, forbes.com

Valvetrain

There are overhead cam OHC and overhead valve OHV engines. Each has pros and cons. See article by axleaddict.com.

I'd rather have low and mid range torque of SOHC (see video). Which engine provides the greatest area under the curve for torque vs rpm? The video below says SOHC provides higher torque at low and mid range RPM due to lower valve train mass than DOHC.


Some engines with 2 valves per cylinder use rocker arms between the cam and the valves, so the intake and exhaust valves are at an angle to each other. Adding rockerarms allows valves at an angle to the cylinder chamber for better gas flow, but also increases valvetrain mass. How detrimental is the added mass? It must be worth the tradeoff for an engine that can breathe at a higher RPM.

Could you add Variable Valve Timing (VVT) and Variable Valve Lift (VVL) on the 2 valve per cylinder SOHC engine?

Engine Examples

One of the best performing engines, when defined solely by horsepower, was used in the Honda S2000.

Honda F20C engine: 1,997 cc (2.0 L) with 247 hp (250 PS)

Nissan SR16VE N1 engine: 1,600 cc (1.6 L) with 197 hp (200 PS)

It's too bad the Wankel rotary engine didn't continue development, as I think it would be superior to any reciprocating engine. As a bonus, Wankels run great on hydrogen, which works well for going off-grid. However, the future now lays in electric vehicles.





Suspensions

Independent Suspension

An independent suspension has the benefit of not having a beam across the bottom of the car at the height of the center of the wheels. Case in point, solid rear axles, but can also be the case with torsion beam suspensions.

Independent Suspension


Torsion Beam Suspension

The lowly torsion beam suspension can be a simple and effective option for application in sports cars or passenger cars where there isn't a lot of wheel travel. Sports cars have strong roll bars which produces the same effect that a simpler torsion beam does, although with less ability to fine tune how the wheels move.

Torsion beam is inferior offroad or going over significant bumps. Veloster.org threads: one two.


Tires Are Critical To Effective Suspensions

Higher Tire Pressure Damages Rims

Running higher than the correct pressure is harmful to the rims and suspension because the tires do not absorb a sufficient amount of the impact.

Lower Tire Pressure Damages Rims

There are two dangers in lowering tire pressure:

1) For highway speeds, lowering pressure will result in excessive heat generated from tire deformation.

2) On impact with ground deformities, as long as the tire deflection does not reach the rim, the rim will not be damaged from direct contact with the ground. Lowering tire pressure increases the risk of contact.

I can't find an online calculator for the lowest pressure that will cause tire to rim contact, from a bad pothole at a given speed, tire width and height, weight on a wheel, spring rate, etc. Too complicated.

Lowering Tire Pressure

A lower pressure will afford a smoother ride over rough terrain:

tire pressure

Google search will produce many results saying not to drop tire pressure below 20 PSI. Mostly, bead lock wheels are needed when dropping below 12-16 PSI to keep the tires from coming off the rims.

Factors To Determine Air Pressure On The Trail, 4wheelparts.com

A portable air pump can inflate tires when transitioning from rough terrain to highway.

Aspect Ratio

In order to lower tire pressure, you need high aspect ratio tires. For gravel road speeds up to 50mph, maybe the minimum tire aspect ratio to consider is 70 series. Below 70 series, you may have an unacceptable risk of bending rims upon impact with surface irregularities or rocks. Potholes and tire pressure, bobistheoilguy.com

After purchase update: I am currently running 55 series (215/55R17) at 20 PSI over gravel roads. I've not yet had issues, so I assume this pressure is fine. I don't drop below this pressure because visually there isn't much thickness of tire, and because my rims are slightly wider than my tires.

Aintlostjustdkwiam on Reddit thinks I'm fine to drop to 20PSI on my 55 series tires. “This is one of those things where you find out you went too far by cracking a rim.”

Ponklemoose on Reddit: “The impact of a wheel hitting a pothole or rock is generally a pretty obvious cracked wheel or cut sidewall.”

Tire Width vs Rim Width

“A narrower rim will retain the tire bead at low pressure better than a wider rim. This better retention is because the tire bulges out more with a narrower rim. A 35×12.50R15 tire on a 15×8 rim could use a pressure as low as 10 psi on a typical trail rig without the tire coming off the wheel.” 4wheelparts.com

Sidewall Flexibility

The softness of the ride also depends on the tires ability to deform. Soft sidewalls and more flexible belt plies helps with this? Read Basic Tire Tech, Bill Ansell 2008

Radial Vs Bias Ply

Tire Contact Patch Shape

Kai in Tinkerer's Adventure thinks narrower tires perform better off-road. The longer instead of wider tire contact patch of a narrower tire is able to “caterpillar track” over deformities.

Kai does an experiment on same height tires on the same rims (including same rim width), with the only difference being the tire width.

Kai shows that for a particular brand of radial tire, the contact patch is rounded and isn't even the full width of the tire until about 5 PSI. Furthermore, at the same tire pressure, the contact patch area is the same regardless of width. Which should be obvious that pressure X area should equal the weight of the vehicle.

Lower Pressure for a Wider Tire

A wider tire should be run at a lower pressure, so that the contact patch width is relative to the tire width, as the manufacturer intended for the tire. There is a calculator for tire pressure relative to tire width:

https://tiresize.com/pressure-calculator

This lower pressure will allow greater tire deformation.

Higher Volume for a Softer Ride

My conclusion is that I will want to stick as much volume of tire as I can into a mostly unmodified suspension, then run a lower tire pressure for a softer ride.

Most sports car tires in the 70s were 70 series. Common vintage tire sizes didn't go less than 60 series:
Vintage Car Tyre Conversion Chart, errolstyres.co.za
Vintage Tyres, longstonetyres.co.uk

A pliable tire also affords greater cornering performance, off-road and also on the track. See: Practical Tire Aspect Ratio





Transmission Differentials


Limited Slip Differential

Limited slip differentials (LSD), as opposed to open differentials, provide torque to the wheels with the most grip, to keep from getting stuck going up gravel roads. See driving for answers on YouTube.

Datsun 240Z, 260Z, and 280Z from the 70s have LSD.

Most cars have open differentials. Some of these cars have torque vectoring added to the open differential.


Open Differential with Torque Vectoring

See carexpert.com itstillruns.com caranddriver.com

“Mechanical LSD can also introduce additional understeer under power as it locks up, since it's forcing both rear wheels to turn at the same rate, instead of allowing them to turn at different rates to match the corner radius. Torque vectoring can overdrive the outside rear wheel, which induces a turning moment and oversteer.” xtremepsionic on reddit





RWD vs FWD on Gravel Roads

4WD or AWD has better traction, but adds transmission complexity.

2 Wheel Drive Rally, FWD or RWD? reddit.com

Aside from being advantageous for towing, RWD is on par with FWD for Rally. Each has advantages depending on the rally course. RWD benefits from a capable driver and an easy to control gas pedal. Also the vehicle weight distribution needs to be well balanced. Poor balance would be 60% of weight on front tires in a RWD car.

“RWD is a lot of fun and probably has an edge on tarmac and uphills. FWD will tend to have an edge on mid to high speed corners and downhills.”





CNG Compressed Natural Gas

Lower Fuel Cost

In Peru you can get liquified gas at gas stations. The cost per mile for liquified gas is less. You can convert the engine to run on either gas or gasoline with the flip of a switch while driving.

“A diferencia de la gasolina, hay un ahorro significativo. Por ejemplo, por cada 100 kilómetros que se recorre con un auto que emplea gasohol de 95, un ciudadano debe gastar un aproximado de S/ 64; mientras que con gasohol de 90, S/ 57,08 y con diésel, S/ 44,90. En el caso de GLP, le demanda al usuario desembolsar S/ 33,26.” larepublica.pe

So it's about half the cost per mile to use natural gas instead of gasoline.

Characteristics

Gasoline engines modified to use CNG are not ideal CNG engines. CNG is not injected into the cylinders. On carbureted engines and engines modified to run on CNG, the natural gas will use up more volume than a liquid like gasoline, and the amount of oxygen reaching the cylinder is less.

Because better mixing takes place between air and natural gas, there is a more complete combustion. This is one reason a CNG engine runs hotter. Also, the evaporation of gasoline has a cooling effect. There are other factors for hotter temperatures using CNG:

Due to the higher heating value and higher density, combustion of CNG produces a comparatively large amount of heat than the gasoline combustion. Thus, operating CNG as an alternative fuel for gasoline engines causes engine overheating problems. This could affect the engine components, shortens the lifespan of the engine components and also cause pre-ignition in the combustion chamber. … it is suggested to use synthetic coolants for dual-fuel engines as it can help to control the temperature and can prevent the engine overheating. Thermal analysis of natural gas as an alternative fuel for gasoline engine, Ravichandra et al 2020

So the engine will run hot unless using a synthetic coolant. But no one uses water! Cars always have synthetic coolant! I guess that study is valuable because some synthetic coolants are better than others.

Further reading:

Comparative engine performance and emission analysis of CNG and gasoline in a retrofitted car engine, Jahirul et al 2010





Carfolio !

Carfolio section is huge so click to expand





Vehicles List V1

Vehicles List V1





Specifications V2

Specifications V1 still apply, but I'll try a different angle, that's easier to remember.

  • RWD or AWD
  • Manual transmission
  • Hatchback (Preferably a Liftback)

A Datsun 280Z or Nissan 350Z would be perfect except I need more seats and cargo. I guess what I really want is a sports car with small rear seats and SOME cargo space. A trailer for when more cargo is needed.





Nissan 350Z/370Z Modifications

The 350Z is a bit heavy because it shares the same chassis as a G35, FX35/45 (FM Platform). my350z.com.

350Z and 370Z image gallery


Rear Seats

Someone managed to put custom rear seats in a 350Z: instagram my350z.com image tiktok

350Z backseat

350Z skeleton
370Z full interior tour, although 370 has shorter wheelbase.


Interior Space

The EPA interior volume states: 58.5 cubic feet for the 370Z 50.5 cubic feet for the 350Z

The 350Z is longer, taller, but less wide.

Could it be that if you strip out everything behind the seats in both cars, the 350Z has more interior volume? my350z.com quora.com

Removing the strut tower cross member for added space and visibility? my350z.com thatbluezguy, youtube.com


Driver Field of View

The 370Z has terrible visibility. Solutions:


Ride Height

Maybe a taller coilover is a better option than a lift kit?

risingtuning.com

Instruction Video Psrt 2

Reddit


Fuel Efficient ECU Mapping

The ECU can be mapped for fuel efficiency, although I haven't found anyone reporting much mpg gains, except for someone that needed an ECU reset. Most highway runs on 6th gear get 30mpg.





Vehicles List V2

Include my favorites with high aerodynamics, low weight, cramped rear seats, and 2 suitcases of cargo space.

The goal is 3 passengers, 2 large suitcases, 2 small suitcases. I measured a large suitcase, and it's 4.7 cubic feet. Having a free rear seat would allow 2 large suitcases standing behind the passenger seat if it is slid forward. That leaves the hatch/trunk/frunk for the smaller suitcases.

Since AWD versions of FWD cars are so rare in Peru, looking for RWD based cars is more fruitful. Also the weight distribution on RWD cars is usually closer to 50/50 front/rear for better handling.


1990s:


2000s hotcars:

No Liftback:


2010-2022 quora:

No Liftback:


Hatchbacks:


Liftbacks (FWD only, favorites)

Hatchbacks (FWD Based AWD):

No Manual Transmission:


Minivans:

Mid-engine RWD


Research Sites

Below are sites that were useful in building this list:

rearwheeldrive.org
carsized.com
automobiledimension.com
carsize.info
3dmodels.org
sketchfab.com
kbb.com classifieds: AWD hatchbacks
carmax.com classifieds: manual rwd since 2010





What's Available in Peru


Market Research

List of countries by vehicles per capita, wikipedia

Leading light-duty vehicle brands in Peru in 2021, by market share, statista.com

It's kinda funny that my choices are so limited. Searching for something around 5K USD is near impossible. Yes, used car prices are inflated here, but it's not only that.

Does no one sell their old cars??? People keep their cars rather than sell them and get something new? Have I not found a good venue for used car sales on the net? Walking around Chiclayo, I don't see much of older cars. Maybe I need to walk in different boroughs? Maybe all the used cars are in Lima?

Maybe most car sales happened in the last 15 years:

Peru auto sales by year
Source is carsalesbase.com. Also see theglobaleconomy.com. The only data I find starts at 2005, and my guess is that previous years had even lesser sales especially since the GDP per Capita by year mirrors the sales:

GDP per Capita by year


Walking About and Looking at Classifieds

I saw the following interesting vehicles on the streets (click to expand)

I saw the following in classifieds:

All brick7 site ads are archived with no contact information. Sites cari.pe, trovit.com.pe, roodos.pe, and mitula.pe point to ads on other sites. I don't know if some of the lower prices are real. Many of the “available” are really old ads.

Vehicles with manual and RWD/AWD:

Minivans with manual and RWD/AWD:

Note that many models above could “potentially” have AWD, but very uncommon. I didn't finish sorting into the following sections:

Vehicles unsure if RWD/AWD:

Vehicles without RWD/AWD:


Chinese Dealerships

I can't afford anything new, but maybe Chinese brands are more affordable? What's available that is both appealing and under 15K USD?

List of dealerships in Peru obtained from: Autos Chinos: Conoce El Panorama Actual Del Mercado Peruano, autofact.pe

Changan: nothing
JAC: nothing
DFSK: nothing
Chery: nothing
Great Wall: only trucks
Geely: nothing
Foton: only trucks & vans

Motowheeler.com with filters for RWD and manual transmission: nothing. AWD and manual transmission: nothing. Nothing that sufficiently meets my specifications.


Junkyards

There are no junkyards in Peru. A junked car quickly gets picked apart, where the parts are sold in market. The remaining frame is scrapped for the sale of metals. There is no such thing as “Pick a Part” or “Pick-n-Pull” in Peru. Which sucks because when buying a used part I wouldn't get to see the vehicle it came from.

Don't believe what Google map says in Peru. Half the places are false on Google maps. On rare occasion they exist but are not placed correctly on the map. All the places that turn up as junkyards for cars will be fictitious.


Auctions

Chinese Vehicles

Electric Vehicles

Geely Zeekr 001 wikipedia
Avita Avatr 11 wikipedia youtube
Arcfox Alpha S wikipedia
Changan’s Qiyuan A07 carscoops
wikipedia

No liftback


Alibaba Electric Vehicles

China’s Abandoned, Obsolete Electric Cars Are Piling Up in Cities, bloomberg.com 202308

The range of older electric vehicles isn't stellar, which is likely why they aren't wanted, and why I too am hesitant given the lack of charging stations in Peru. Maybe I can take along solar panels for emergency use?

The batteries on these vehicles should be sold for use in solar powered homes. More modern batteries could be fit into them.

Does the surplus of electric vehicles in China show up as good bargains on Alibaba?

Xpeng G3 520i alibaba

Dongfeng EX1 Nano Box

byd yuan plus 510km alibaba


ICE Vehicles

ICE (internal combustion engine)

Aito M5 hybrid wikipedia
Shenlan SL03 hybrid wikipedia

Listed by Manufacturer

“ The traditional “Big Four” domestic car manufacturers are SAIC Motor, Dongfeng, FAW and Chang’an. Other Chinese car manufacturers are Geely, Beijing Automotive Group, Brilliance Automotive, BYD, Chery, Guangzhou Automobile Group, Great Wall and Jianghuai (JAC). ” wikipedia

List of Vehicles with RWD, Manual Transmission, Independent Suspension, and Internal Combustion Engine. A common reference when looking up specifications is chinamobil.ru.

Expand for List





Sports Car with Ground Clearance

I want a sports car, but an SUV is more practical. An AWD Subaru SUV would be practical. A sports car with a lift kit and large diameter tires for offroad would be badass, like this 240Z rally racer (no rear seats):

240Z Rally Car
roadandtrack.com

370Z rally car (no rear seats):

370Z Rally Car

I could do this to a Celica GT4 AWD (image below), if they weren't impossible to find.

Celica GT4

Porsche 944 with lift kit:

944 Rally Car

Porsche 944 rear seat legroom. Maybe just as much as the 350Z rear seat hack.

While my budget is about 14K USD, I'd rather spend much less to have money for the future, but if there's something I really like I can spend the full budget.





Subaru Impreza / Crosstrek / XV

The third generation 2008-2011 Subaru Impreza looks nicer than newer Impreza models. See motortrend images.

Subaru Impreza 2008

Subaru started making an offroad version of the Impreza in 2013, and called it the Crosstrek. Can a 2008-2011 Impreza be converted to a 2013-2017 Crosstrek/XV with suspension parts from a junkyard? Redditors use lift kits. Below a lifted 2012-2016 Subaru Impreza.

Subaru Impreza with lift kit

3rd generation lift video Stock ground clearance is 6.3 inches
4th generation lift video

Stock 2013 Subaru Crosstrek below. They mess up the clean lines with tacky fender flares below. Removing them reveals a recess in the body panels, at least on the 2020 model.

Subaru Crosstrek

One complication to the Subaru being AWD, is that all 4 tires need to be changed at the same time, so they are all the same diameter. Differences in diameter between front and rear can damage the AWD. See MrSubaru1387 on YouTube.

Another complaint is engine oil consumption. But this seems to be a trend in newer cars, where manufacturers are having to meet impossible mpg emissions standards, so they make engine tolerances greater to decrease friction. Thanks for the info MrSubaru1387 on YouTube.





Facebook Marketplace

Facebook Marketplace is the about the only place to shop for a used car. There is more variety in Vehicles List V2, but the AWD versions are very rare so I gave up looking for them. Since Facebook Marketplace search is so poor, I had to look through almost a thousand ads to create the list below!

  • nr means “no response”; the seller didn't respond to my request
  • exp means ad has expired or vehicle sold
  • no means it didn't pass my inspection
  • not means didn't see in person but don't want
  • sra means “solid rear axle”
  • irs means “independent rear suspension”

Old Cars

celica notes

1984 toyota celica 9K soles facebook favebook facebook piura
1984 toyota celica supra 6.8K 5.4K USD facebook lima
not 1982 toyota corola 1.5L (sra) 10.5K soles facebook chiclayo not
not 1981 amc spirit amx (automatic, sra) 10K soles facebook juanjui, san martín no
no 1980 toyota celica (sra2) 9K soles facebook trujillo no
no 1982 toyota celica 1.6L 10K soles facebook lima no
exp 1975 datsun sedan (irs) 9K soles facebook trujillo exp
not 1983 mazda rx7 12.5K soles facebook lamas, san martin (insufficient cargo space) not

Subaru Impreza/XV 19K MSRP for US 2.5L version

2008 subaru impreza 2.0L 150km 7.2K USD facebook lima
2008 subaru impreza 2.0L 155km racing facebook andahuaylas, apurimac
2008 subaru impreza 2.0L 200km blue 7.7K USD facebook ica, ica
2011 subaru impreza 2.0L 93km 34k soles facebook lima
no 2008 subaru impreza 2.0L 122km 30K 28K soles facebook trujillo no
no 2008 subaru impreza 2.0L 27K soles facebook rioja, san martin no
exp 2009 subaru impreza 2.0L red 25K soles facebook facebook lima exp
exp 2011 subaru impreza 2.0L 120km 8.5K USD facebook lima exp
exp 2011 subaru xv 8.9K USD facebook lima exp
exp 2010 subaru xv 9K USD facebook lima exp
not 2014 subaru xv 48K soles facebookfacebook chiclayo not

Sports Cars

1983 porsche 944 9.9K USD facebook lima
not 1995 mitsubishi 3000gt (FWD, not VR4) 15K USD facebook lima not
no 2004 nissan 350Z 64km 12.5K USD facebook facebook chiclayo no
exp porsche 944 project 15K soles facebook trujillo exp
scam 2015 porsche 911 30K soles evisos lima scam
nr 2004 audi tt 4K USD evisos nr
nr 2006 nissan 350Z 12K USD facebook lima nr

Hyundai Veloster (torsion beam rear suspension)

Click to expand

SUVs

Click to expand

BMW 27.5K MSRP (17630 £ * 1.56 $/£ in 2013)

2016 bmw 120i 4dr black 88km 15.8K USD facebook trujillo
2016 bmw 120i 4dr white 67km 18K USD facebook lima
2016 bmw 120i 4dr bronze 50km 17.9K USD facebook lima
2014 bmw 114i 4dr black 67km 15K USD facebook chiclayo
2014 bmw 114i 4dr grey 99km 13.6K USD mdecoder facebook facebook facebook trujillo
2018 bmw x1 68km 75K soles facebook lima
not 2013 bmw 130i 2dr white 56km 12K USD facebook lima not
not 2012 bmw 116i 2dr black with red interior 100km 10.8K USD facebook lima not
no 2014 bmw 116i 4dr white 1.6L 67km 14K USD neoauto lima no
not 2014 bmw 114i 4dr red 73km 14.7K USD facebook chiclayo not
exp 2012 bmw 130i 2dr 99km 12.8K USD neoauto facebook facebook lima exp
exp 2013 bmw x1 65km 15K USD facebook lima exp
exp bmw 120i 4dr 16K USD facebook piura exp
exp 2012 bmw 116i 2dr white 1.6L 113km 11.5K USD facebook lima exp
nr 2014 bmw 114i 4dr grey 60km 51.5K soles 11K USD facebook facebookfacebook facebook trujillo nr

My favorite in this list is the BMW 1 series, preferably the 4 door 130i that has an inline 6 cylinder engine. Although the only 130i available were 2 door.

Size comparison between BMW 1 Series and Subaru Impreza.
Size comparison between Hyundai Veloster and BMW 1 Series
Size comparison between 370Z and BMW 1 Series
Size comparison between Cayman and BMW 1 Series.
Size comparison between 240Z and BMW 1 Series





Favorite Production Cars

Not including something I could never afford, like an Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale or a Lamborghini Countash.

Click to expand





Inspecting a Used Car

ChrisFix videos

MrSubaru1387. Mr Subaru explained in another video about oil consumption in newer cars, where cylinder and piston clearance is high on purpose to reduce friction. Reduced friction at the cost of burning oil. The tradeoff is not beneficial but necessary for passing impossible EPA MPG requirements.

BMW 1 Series Inspection another

Case of too much rust: thedrive.com

Oil filler cap blow-by: What is a normal? Poor man's compression test.





Discussion

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fun/vehicles.txt · Last modified: 2024/04/29 06:32 by marcos